Copyright © 2010, 2011 Daniël de Kok, Harm Brouwer

**License**

Some rights reserved. This book is made available under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License (CC-BY). This license is available from: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

**Table of Contents**

**List of Figures**

**List of Tables**

**List of Equations**

- 2.1. Type-token ratio
- 3.1. Difference between observed and expected chance
- 3.2. Pointwise mutual information
- 3.5. Estimating the probability of a sentence
- 3.6. The probability of a sentence as a Markov chain
- 3.8. Approximation using the Markov assumption
- 3.9. The conditional probability of a word using the Markov assumption
- 3.10. The probability of a sentence using a bigram model
- 5.1. Calculating the empirical value of a feature
- 5.2. Calculating the expected value of a feature
- 5.3. Constraining the expected value to the empirical value
- 7.1. Transformation rule selection criterion